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Integrated Nutrient Management

Cultivable bacterial diversity and early plant growth promotion by the traditional organic formulations prepared using organic waste materials

Abstract: Purpose Traditional organic formulations are widely used as a plant growth promoters; however, the knowledge on the microbial aspect of traditional organic formulations is still limited. The aim of this study was to illustrate the cultivable bacterial diversity of various traditional organic formulations and their potential for early plant growth promotion.

Author/s & Publications: Rangasamy Anandham et al (2015). Download/Link:

Bio-efficacy of Organic Formulations on Crop Production-A Review

Abstract: Indiscriminate use of the fertilizer, pesticide has harmful effects on soil health, human health, ground water health and environment. This will caused more dangerous effect for future possibility. Present status of all food grain production is in enough quantity for population of our country so we need to quality of food production, quality of soil, quality of ground water and quality or healthy environment for better livelihood. These qualities are obtained by the replacing inorganic input through organic input which is more vital for present prospect and future outlook. This review paper attempts to bring together different use of organic formulation in crop production and protection. It has been argued that organic formulation in crop production is productive and sustainable, but there is a need for strong support to it in the form of manifestation of subsidies, agricultural extension services and research.

Author/s: & Publications: Sudhanshu Verma, Abhishek Singh, Swati Swayamprabha Pradhan, R.K. Singh and J.P. Singh, (2017).  Download/Link:

Effect of organic manures and liquid organic formulations on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) economics


Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of last week of December 2019 at the certified organic experiment farm of the SHIATS Model of Organic Farm (SMOF) in NAI, Prayagraj to study the response of wheat under different sources of organic manures and liquid organic formulation on yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment consists 10 treatments with 3 replications laid out in a randomized block design. Organic manures i.e., Control 16 t/ha, M1: FYM 25% (4 t/ha) + Vermicompost 75% (4.5 t/ha), M2: FYM 50% (8 t/ha) + Vermicompost 50% (3 t/ha), M3: FYM 75% (12 t/ha) + Vermicompost 25% (1.5 t/ha) and Liquid organic formulations i.e., L1: Panchagavya at 2%, L2: Vermiwash at 5%, L3: Panchagavya at 2% + Vermiwash at 5%. The result concluded that the maximum grain yield (2.39 t/ha) and straw yield (3.67 t/ha) was recorded with application of FYM 75% + VC 25% + Panchagavya at 2% + Vermiwash at 5% spray. The economic analysis clearly indicates that higher benefit: cost ratio (2.11) recorded with application of FYM 50% + VC 50% + Panchagavya at 2% spray. 

Author/s: M Shiva Kumar, Rajesh Singh, Punnam Chhetri, 2020.  Download/Link: 

Effects Of Organic Formulations And Synthetic Fertilizer On The Performance Of Pigeonpea In Eastern Region Of Uttar Pradesh

Abstract: A field experiment involving five organic formulations viz., cow urine, vermiwash, neem seed extract, fish wash normal water (control) and three levels of NPK viz., 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 75% RDF and 100% RDF with total 15 treatment combinations in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Varanasi during Kharif season (July-April) 2014-15 to evaluate the effect of different organic formulations and NPK fertilization on pigeonpea. Results showed that increasing level of NPK up to 100% RDF significantly improved growth parameters, yield attributes, grain and straw yield. Among the treatment combinations, combined application of 100% RDF + vermiwash proved superior over other treatments, these recorded the highest growth yield attributes, gross returns, and net returns while B : C ratio was the highest under 100% RDF in combination with cow urine. 

Author/s & Publications: Sudhanshu Verma, Abhishek Singh, Swati Swayamprabha Pradhan, Jp Singh And Sk Verma (2018). Download/Link: 

Test formulation of liquid organic fertilizer on growth and result of soybean plants

Abstract: The objective of this research is to know the result of Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF) formulation on growth and yield of soybean crop. The hypothesis of this research is;(1) Suspected different LOF formulations provide different growth and yields of soybean crops;(2) suspected formulations F2 (LOF water hyacint + banana cobs) will have a better effect on the growth of soybean crop than other formulation;(3) suspected formulations F7 (LOF water hyacint + fish bone + chicken egg shell) will have a better effect on soybean crop yield than other formulations. LOF application with various formulations is expected to improve the growth of soybean crops, so it can increase the yield of soy / ha, in the long term aims to increase land productivity and can prevent land degradation, as well as one solution in overcoming the problem of organic waste.

Author/s : J Herawati, I Indarwati and E Ernawati (2015). Download/Link: 

Influence of foliar spray of different organic formulations on yield attributing characters of Agri-horti crops: A review

Abstract: The application of foliar spray of organic formulation is emerging area in agricultural and horticultural production. It is increasing the plant productivity and qualitative characters of the produce. It is maintaining the agricultural sustainability by avoiding use of chemical pesticides. Horticultural crops cover major portion of agricultural land which are also one of the chief sources of human food requirement. At the present time, it is very crucial to produce sufficient amount of food to meet out the problem of rapidly growing population without affecting the environment. But the utilization of chemicals in the form of pesticides, plant fertilizers and post-harvest formulations for higher production of the crops, has created a big problem to the soil, water, animals and plants. The organic or bio-based formulations are the basis of sustainable agriculture and can provide safe and quality horticultural produce without compromising soil’s heath. 

Author/s & Publication: Vinay Kumar (2018). Download/Link: 

Influence of organic supplements on growth and yield of finger millet (Eleusine Coracana L.)

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam during rabi season (2019-2020) to study the impact of various solid and liquid organic supplements on growth and yield of transplanted finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). The experiment was carried out in randomized block design replicated thrice with ten treatments. Treatments comprised of two solid organic supplements (100% FYM and 100% poultry manure) each in combination with three different liquid organic supplements (3% panchagavya, 3% jeevamrutham and 3% beejamrutham, respectively). All the treatments significantly influenced the growth characters, yield attributes and yield of transplanted finger millet over RDF and control. The higher growth and yield was significantly recorded with the application of 100% poultry manure + 3% panchagavya at 30 and 45 DAT. The least significant growth characters, yield attributes and grain yield were recorded in absolute control.

Author/s: Ashokh Aravind S, Senthil Kumar N, Hemalatha M and Paramasivan M (2020). Download/Link: 

Secondary and Micronutrient Management Practices in Organic Farming- An Overview

Abstract: Modern agriculture, no doubt has paved the way for “Green Revolution”, but it has led to the application of heavy doses of chemical fertilizers and pesticides with the sole objective of maximizing the yield. The unbalanced and continuous use of chemical fertilizers in intensive cropping system is causing deterioration of soil health, multi-nutrient deficiencies, low productivity, poor quality and environmental hazards. Poor quality of food and fodder has caused serious health problems and disorders in both animals and human beings. Now, the agriculture research is focused on evolving ecologically sound, biologically sustainable and socio economically viable technologies like organic farming which includes local organic sources of nutrients without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Adoption of organic farming minimizes the environmental pollution and maintain long-term soil fertility by improving soil organic matter and essential plant nutrients including secondary and micronutrients. For producing quality food by sustaining the soil productivity and soil

Author/s: M.R. Anand, H.D. Shiva Kumar , Poojitha Kommireddy and K.N. Kalyana Murthy (2019). Download/Link: 

The Concept and Formulation of Kunapajala, the World’s Oldest Fermented Liquid Organic Manure

Abstract: Beginning in the 1990s, researchers and farm policy makers in India and the rest of the world focused their attention on ‘organic farming’ in order to better the sustainability of agriculture. I had earlier described and discussed most of the methods currently recommended in different parts of India. These methods are: (i) The natural way of farming (‘do-nothing’) farming by Masanobu Fukuoka; (ii) Biodynamic agriculture by Rudolf Steiner – introduced in India; (iii) Vermiculture developed by Mary Appelhof– introduced in India; (iv) ‘Natueco’ culture by Shripad Dabholkar; (v) Zero-budget natural farming (ZBNF) by Subhash Palekar; (vi) Rishi-Krishi by Mohan Deshpande; (vii) Agnihotra by disciples of Gajanan Maharaj of Akkalkot, Maharashtra; (viii) Panchagavya by K. Natarajan; (ix) Krishi-suktis and Vrikshayurvedas (Surapala, Sarangadhara, and others) by sages and scholars of ancient and medieval India; (x) Compost tea by Elaine Ingham– introduced in India; and (xi) EM-Bokashi tea by TeruoHiga– introduced in India. Of these methods, Dabholkar’s‘Natueco’, Palekar’s ZBNF, Natarajan’s panchagavya, Ingham’s compost tea, and EM-Bokashi of Higa are related to Kunapajala, which is produced by adopting the liquid fermentation technology as documented by Surapala, in the first-ever compilation of the methods of Vrikshayurveda. Thus, Kunapajala, the ancient Indian fermented liquid manure, was a stupendous innovation. The fact of Kunapajala’s Indian origin went un-noticed for centuries, which is why agronomists, all over the world, currently tend to believe that the innovation of fermented liquid manure was done by farmers in Japan, Korea, China, or even medieval Europe— but not by farmers of India.

Author/s & Publication: Y. L. Nene (2017). Download/Link: 

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