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Agro-Ecological Plant Health Management

Agro-ecological Approaches to Pest Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract: Presents agro-ecological pest management practices for producing more food from the same piece of land with less environmental impact. Serves as a useful reference to policymakers, researchers and extension workers. Helps practicing farmers adopt sustainable pest management practices to increase their crop yields

Author/s: P. Parvatha Reddy

Year of Publications: 2017. 

Agroecological Crop Protection

Abstract: This book is devoted to Agroecological Crop Protection, which is the declension of the principles of agroecology to crop protection. It presents the concepts of this innovative approach, case studies and lessons and generic keys for agroecological transition. The book is intended for a wide audience, including scientists, experimenters, teachers, farmers, students. It represents a new tool, proposing concrete keys of action on the basis of feedbacks validated scientifically.

Author/s: Deguine J.-P., Gloanec C., Laurent P., Ratnadass A., Aubertot J.-N

Year of publication: 2017 

Pest and Disease management in Organic Ecosystem

Abstract: AICRP on Cropping Systems, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

Author/s : Dr S Mohan, Dr. P Devasenapathy, Dr. C Vennilla Dr. MS Gill 

IPM packages

Abstract: Its a website where one can download IPM for the crops of their interest. It includes IPM practices for cereals, pulses, commercial crops, fruits, spices, ornamental and tuber crops

Author/s: Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage  

Insect Pests of  Pigeonpea and their Management

Abstract: Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming systems, providing high quality vegetable protein, animal feed, and firewood. Insect pests feeding on flowers, pods, and seeds are the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeonpea yields. This review summarizes the biology and ecology of the three most important groups of pests: flower- and pod-feeding Lepidoptera, pod-sucking Hemiptera, and seed-feeding Diptera and Hymenoptera.

Author/s: T. G. Shanower1and J. Romeis,

Publication: 1991

Plant Defence against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection

Abstract: Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. 

Author/s: Mitchell C, Brennan RM, Graham J and Karley AJ

Year of Publication: 2016 

Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities

Abstract: Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. 

Author/s: Julie A. Peterson1, Paul J. Ode, Camila Oliveira-Hofmanand James D. Harwood

Year of Publication: 2016 

Abstract: This article introduces the concept of plant disease and provides an overview of some defense mechanisms common among higher plants. A close examination of plant anatomy is presented, as well as some of the ecological relationships that contribute to plant defense and disease resistance. Special care has been taken to illustrate how products used in everyday life are derived from substances produced by plants during defense responses.

Author/s: Freeman, B.C. and G.A. Beattie.

Year of Publication: 2008 

Abstract: This guide was developed to provide a useful and scientifically accurate reference for organic farmers and agricultural professionals who are searching for information on best practices, available materials, and perhaps most importantly, the efficacy of materials that are allowed for use in organic systems. Many products available to organic farmers have not been extensively tested, and current research has not been summarized or made widely available to the practitioner. 

Author/s: Brian Caldwell, Cornell University, Eric Sideman

Year of Publication: 2013 

Abstract: Agrichemical methods of protecting crops are costly to the farmer, potentially harmful to the environment and, despite widespread use, have not proved 100-percent effective. Problems persist due to pest resistance and the uncanny ability of pests to overcome single-tactic control strategies. The old approach strives for 100 percent control of every pest using one strategy or agrichemical for each pest. The new approach, ecological pest management, aims to manage the whole farm and keep pests at acceptable populations using many complementary strategies.

Author/s: Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls with Marlene Fritz

Year of Publication: 2005 

Abstract: The ‘Field guide to Non-chemical Pest Management in Eggplant Production’ is an excerpt taken from the website, It provides farmers with practical guidelines and alternatives to eliminate the use and their dependence on synthetic pesticides for the management of eggplant pests. The recommended practices are safer, more affordable, and easy to follow. Most of the farm practices, the farmers can do by themselves and the materials that are needed are found in their backyards or in their kitchens or can be purchased in the local agricultural suppliers.

Author/s: Pesticide Action Network (PAN), Gernmany

Year of Publication: 2010. 

Replacing Chemicals with Biology: Phasing out highly hazardous pesticides with agroecology

Abstract: The purpose of this publication is to provide information drawn from  all regions to assist countries in replacing  HHPs with ecosystem-based approaches to pest and crop management – replacing chemicals with biology. 

Author/s: Meriel Watts with Stephanie Williamson

Year of Publications: 2015

Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process (Article-Non Pesticidal Management: Learning from Experiences)

Abstract: Two decades of experience in Andhra Pradesh on Non Pesticidal Management shows that pest is a symptom of ecological disturbance rather than a cause and can be affectively managed by using local resources and timely action. 

Author/s: G.V. Ramanjaneyulu,M.S. Chari, T.A.V.S. Raghunath, Zakir Hussain and Kavitha Kuruganti

Year of Publications: 2009

Hand Book on Stored grain pests and their identification

Abstract: This pocket guide designed to give brief information on biology, identification, life cycle, commodities attacked and damage caused by different stored grain pests associated with different food grains in India. However, it acts as a basic field identification guide for the officers working in FCI, CWC, SWC, Seed certification officers, quality control officers, grain marketing officers and civil supplies corporations etc.

Author/s: Dr. Mandali Rajasri, Dr. J. Alice R.P. Sujeetha, Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta, Smt P. Geetha

Year of publication: 2019 

Prospect of Indigenous Plant Extracts in Tea Pest Management

Abstract: Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to these maladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%.  

Author/s: M.S.A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Publication: 2011  

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

Abstract: Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. 

Author/s: Abdul Rashid War, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Tariq Ahmad, Abdul Ahad Buhroo, Barkat Hussain, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, and Hari Chand Sharma

Year of Publication: 2012. 

A total system approach to sustainable pest management

Abstract: In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.

Author/s: W. J. Lewis J. C. van Lenteren, Sharad C. Phatak, and J. H. Tumlinson

Year of Publication:1997 

Abstract: Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signalling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. 

Author/s: Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg, Mika Zagrobelny and Søren Bak

Year of Publication: 2013  

Abstract: The purpose is to disseminate information on extension systems and practices, research on extension methods, efficient organisation of technology transfer and current concerns in the area of agriculture.

Author/s: Manage

Year of Publication: 2019 

Abstract: Over the past decade, the world's major agricultural issues have altered under the combined influence of ecological and sociological changes: climate change, biodiversity loss, land scarcity, urbanization, and demographic pressure. These changes are interacting variables that continue to contribute to a major change in the way agriculture is done. With increasing urbanization, the relationship between society and nature is changing, and the ecological and social role of agriculture is evolving and changing at a rapid pace in most societies, both in the North and in the South.

Author/s: CRIDA

Abstract: The ‘Field Guide to Non-chemical Pest Management in Corn Production’ is an excerpt taken from the website, It enables to provide farmers with practical guides and alternatives to eliminate the use and their dependence on synthetic pesticides for the management of corn pests. The recommended practices are safer, more affordable, and easy to follow. Most of the farm practices, the farmers can do by themselves and the materials that are needed are found in their backyards or in their kitchens or can be purchased in the local agricultural suppliers.

Author/s: PAN Germany

Year of Publication: 2008 

Abstract: Farmers often do not realize that their unsprayed fields are full of beneficial insects (parasitoids and predators) which keep pest numbers under control. However, these natural enemies are much more vulnerable to pesticides than the targeted pests. So when pesticides are used, natural enemies are killed and pests can develop unchecked. It is therefore essential to use non-chemical crop protection methods instead of pesticides. This booklet describes a number of tactics that can be used. It demonstrates how to work with nature to keep pests at tolerable levels. The booklet also draws attention to the Farmer Field Schools that have been set up world-wide. In these field schools, farmers learn to become active, self-reliant practitioners of nonchemical crop protection.

Author/s: Piet Scheepens, Rik Hoevers, Agromisa Foundation and CTA, Wageningen

Year of Publication: 2007  

Shetkaryancha Sholay - Video on Natural Pest Management (Marathi)

This short video covers about Chatur Rao, a dedicated farmer, is facing a grave problem - one that every farmer dreads: pests that relentlessly destroy his crops despite his efforts to prevent them. Fortunately, Chatur has stumbled upon a superhero - a scientist who has shared a sure-fire solution with him. The solution is found in Natural Pest Management (NPM), an eco-friendly approach that offers effective and long-lasting protection against pests. With NPM, Chatur can protect his crops and reap the benefits of a healthy and sustainable harvest.

Video from Satyamev Jayat |Toxic Food | Trapping the pests (Hindi)

This short video covers about Our foodgrain crops face a significant threat from pests. Although the use of pesticides can eliminate pests, it comes at a high cost to farming and poses severe health hazards. However, there are natural alternatives like pheromone traps and yellow traps that are both inexpensive and highly effective. These methods offer a practical solution to combat pests and protect crops without harmful side effects.

Agro-Ecological Weed Management

Weeds can help in biodiversity and soil conservation

Weeds being a host for rhizobacteria, also act as a source of various nutrients and organic matter which helps in rejuvenating degraded soils and preventing soil erosion. The heavy metals presence detection in the soil and its remediation with weeds helps in sustainable quality production of food. Biodiversity of weeds describes the enormous variety of weeds present in the niche.

Author/s: Tejinder Singh, Anuj Choudhary and Simerjeet Kaur

Year of Publications: 2023 

Exploration of Some Potential Nutritive Wild Edible Weeds

It revels vital information about numerous edible parts of 15 plant species. This type of comprehensive survey technique could support to educate the budding pharmacist about the potential health benefits of wild edible plants/ weeds which further can be amalgamated in profitable crop plants. Such methodology will supports to improve food shortage, economy in rural areas and helps in revival of infertile lands.

Author/s: Powar Priyatama V, Shirode Devendra S, Vishvakarma Sonam R, Vishwad Anuja A

Year of Publications: 2019 

Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils

At sites contaminated with metals, plants can be used to either stabilize or remove the metals from the soil and groundwater through three mechanisms, Phytoextraction, Phytomining, Rhizofiltration, and Phytostabilization. In the present study a pot experiment was conducted using Acalypha indica, Abutilon indicum and Physalis minima weed plant species for their ability to absorb the heavy metals (Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Chromium) from the contaminated soil. The final results shows that A. indica was good accumulator of lead, nickel and chromium, Abutilon indicum was good accumulator of chromium and Physalis minima was good accumulator of lead and chromium.

Author/s: Vudata. Subhashini, AVVS. Swamy, D. Harika and K. Venkateswararao

Year of Publications: 2017 

Herbicide Resistance in Weeds and Its Management 

Repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action for weed control in wheat has resulted in evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in Phalaris minor, which could threaten the sustainability of the rice-wheat cropping system in north-western India. Early detection of resistance can facilitate timely adoption of alternative tactics and minimise the f inancial impact on farmers. Structured surveys of resistance affected areas can provide required information for site-specific recommendations as expression of herbicide resistance tends to be highly site-specific. Greater emphasis is needed on weed management systems based on sound knowledge of weed ecology.

Author/s: Makhan S Bhullar, Navjyot Kaur, Pervinder Kaur and Gurjeet Gill

Year of Publications: 2017 

Allelopathy and its application as a weed management tool: A review

Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon of chemical interaction between plants, and this phenomenon has great potential to be used as an effective and environmentally friendly tool for weed management in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be applied through intercropping, crop rotation, cover crops, mulching and allelopathic water extracts to manage weeds. Accumulating evidence indicates that some plant species possess potent allelochemicals that have great potential to be the ecofriendly natural herbicides.

Author/s: Yuvraj Khamare, Jianjun Chen and Stephen Christopher Marble

Year of Publications: 2022 

Folk Uses of Weeds From District Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand, India

Weeds adversely affect the crop yield. However, some weeds are traditionally used as fodder resources, wild edibles, medicinal plants, fibre yielding, etc. in different parts of the world. Present study aimed to document the local uses of weedy plants in Rudraprayag district of Uttarakhand. A total of 113 weed species belonging to 90 genera and 38 families were documented with various folk uses.

Author/s: Bharti Rautela and Prabhawati Tiwari

Year of Publications: 2021 

Seeing ‘Weeds’ with new Eyes

The relationship between weeds and men is an old one; however, it is changing fast. There have been increasing public concerns about the effects of land clearing, over-development, overuse of herbicides, and other destructive farming practices, as part of our goal of assuring human food security. Such concerns have encouraged some to think critically about whether we ought to and need to continue maximum control programs against plant taxa that only pose problems under certain sets of conditions.

Author/s: Nimal Chandrasena

Year of Publications: 2019 

Animal feed useful weed

Agriculture is the backbone of world’s economy and food availability. Various biotic and abiotic factors affect agriculture. These factors affect the productivity of agriculture. Weeds are a major factor in biological factors, which affect agriculture and reduce productivity. Although we only know about the negative and harmful effects of weeds, weed species are also an important source of fodder for our pets. The biomass of various beneficial weed species provides nutrient-rich fodder for the animals

Author/s: Pawan kumar Mahour

Year of Publications: 2022 

Effect of Herbicides on Living Organisms in The Ecosystem and Available Alternative Control Methods

The effects of use herbicides have reached rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. Also, the effect of chemically degradation herbicides on living organisms under different environmental conditions is still unknown. Due to the widespread use of herbicides, it also negatively affects the use of traditional control methods, which can be also effective in some cases. In this article, some alternative control methods that can reduce the use of herbicides and reduce some of the herbicide's harm to the living organisms of the ecosystem are included

Author/s: Ustuner T,  Al Sakran M, and Almhemed K

Year of Publications: 2020 

Weeds as Reservoirs of Beneficial Insects to Control Pests in Crops

Although aphids are pests and can cause 100% crop loss, they also are food for natural enemies and birds. Twenty two plant species were collected, predominantly Asteraceae with eight species; nine species of aphids were collected. Aphis craccivora Koch was on four plant species. Aphidius colemani Viereck parasitized as many as 84% of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas). Allograpta oblicua (Say), Pseudodorus clavatus (F.), and Paragus tibialis (Fallén) hoverflies were found in larvae preying on aphids.

Author/s: Manuel Darío Salas-Araiza, Rafael Guzman-Mendoza, Ilse Alejandra Huerta-Arredondo, and Adrian Leyte-Manrique

Year of Publications: 2023 

Invasive noxious weed management research in India with special reference to Cyperus rotundus, Eichhornia crassipes and Lantana camara

Weeds are eternal pest causing substantial losses of crop yields and quality, which are directly related to food security and safety, respectively. With existing crop protection measures, approximately one-third yield losses occur globally due to weeds, in which contribution of invasive/ noxious weeds is enormous. Invasive/noxious weeds have become a challenge in developing Asian countries, especially in India. These invasive/noxious weeds are widely distributed in all kinds of ecosystems. Invasive species cause losses of native biodiversity including species extinctions, and changes in hydrology and ecosystem function.

Author/s: Rishi Raj T K Das, Ramanjit Kaur, Raj Singh and Kapila Shekhawat

Year of Publications: 2018 

Weed management options under organic farming: A review

Weeds as a key constraint in organic field decrease crop yields by increasing competition for inputs while serving as alternate host for pathogens. Weed management under organic farming is a holistic management system where farmer is not interested in eliminating all weeds but wants to keep them at a threshold level which is economical and manageable. Organic weed management relies on mechanical, biological and cultural methods (crop rotation, enhanced crop competitive ability, delayed or early seeding, flooding, mulching, inclusion of green manure and cover crops and intercropping) but these must be used in an integrated way to get effective and economical results.

Author/s: B K Dhaka, Prakriti, R D Jat, Kamal, Amit Sharma and Preeti

Year of Publications: 2023 

The potential benefits of weeds: A comparative study: A review

Weeds may be unwanted because they are unsightly, or because they limit the growth of other plants by blocking light or using up nutrients from the soil. The term weed in its general sense is a subjective one, without any classification value, since a plant or herb is not a weed when growing where it belongs or is wanted. Despite of being harmful some weeds are called, beneficial plants or herbs as they are edible, use for food or herbal medicine.

Author/s: Alka Sahrawat, Siddarth N Rahul, Sameer K Singh and Shweta Patel

Year of Publications: 2020 

Living with weeds - a new paradigm

This undesirable attitude ignores the considerable evidence of beneficial uses of weed species to many societies, over a long period of human history. The recent application of ‘species-focused’ weed risk assessments have contributed to the maligning of many plant taxa as ‘invaders’ in the public’s mind, undermining their worth as biological resources. Some of the methods used in the blitz against weeds, including the excessive use of herbicides, have resulted in undesirable consequences, such as herbicide resistance, and negative impacts on biodiversity in farming landscapes.

Author/s: Nimal Chandrasena

Year of Publications: 2014 

Uncultivated Edible Greens

Small millet cropping systems (SMCS) offer food security, fodder security and income security to the cultivating households. Besides these advantages, small millet farms accommodate many nutritious uncultivated greens. Not much focus is given for understanding the contribution of uncultivated greens in the small millet farms to the food and nutrition security at the community level and for strengthening the same.

Author/s: Karthikeyan. M, Salome Yesudas and Sathya

Prospects and Problems of Utilization of Weed Biomass: A Review.

Generally in India, FYM and compost are the main sources of manuring. However these have become scarce and costly due to reduction in the cattle population and increase in mechanization. Besides, applications of leaf manuring and crop residue incorporation are also in practice to some extent. There are some weeds species which are largely available can also be used as organic manures.

Author/s: Priya H R, Veena, Pavithra A H and Divya Joythi

Year of Publications: 2014 

Importance of Forests for Agriculture; Augmenting Green Growth

The presence of tree is often seen as against to agricultural production. Agricultural

intensification and expansion are the primary drivers of global forest loss accounting for 11% of total global carbon emissions. Nevertheless, forests support the livelihoods of a vast number of people through subsistence use of products. Forests are not only important supplier of wood, but also as protectors of soil, water and climate, flora and fauna. Forests form the key factor for cloud formation and rains in a region.

Author/s: Priyanka S, Hema K and Chakravarthy A K

Year of Publications: 2014 

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