top of page

Agro-Ecological Plant Health Management

Shetkaryancha Sholay - Video on Natural Pest Management (Marathi)

This short video covers about Chatur Rao, a dedicated farmer, is facing a grave problem - one that every farmer dreads: pests that relentlessly destroy his crops despite his efforts to prevent them. Fortunately, Chatur has stumbled upon a superhero - a scientist who has shared a sure-fire solution with him. The solution is found in Natural Pest Management (NPM), an eco-friendly approach that offers effective and long-lasting protection against pests. With NPM, Chatur can protect his crops and reap the benefits of a healthy and sustainable harvest.

Agro-ecological Approaches to Pest Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract: Presents agro-ecological pest management practices for producing more food from the same piece of land with less environmental impact. Serves as a useful reference to policymakers, researchers and extension workers. Helps practicing farmers adopt sustainable pest management practices to increase their crop yields

Author/s & Publications: P. Parvatha Reddy, July 2017. Download/Link:

Replacing Chemicals with Biology: Phasing out highly hazardous pesticides with agroecology

Abstract: The purpose of this publication is to provide information drawn from  all regions to assist countries in replacing  HHPs with ecosystem-based approaches to pest and crop management – replacing chemicals with biology. It draws together previously published and new material in a form that is accessible for policy- and  decision-makers at the national and international level, as well as providing practical guidance at the farm and farm-support level.

Author/s: & Publications: Meriel Watts with Stephanie Williamson Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific, 2015.  Download/Link:

Agroecological Crop Protection

Abstract: This book is devoted to Agroecological Crop Protection, which is the declension of the principles of agroecology to crop protection. It presents the concepts of this innovative approach, case studies and lessons and generic keys for agroecological transition. The book is intended for a wide audience, including scientists, experimenters, teachers, farmers, students. It represents a new tool, proposing concrete keys of action on the basis of feedbacks validated scientifically.

Author/s: Deguine J.-P., Gloanec C., Laurent P., Ratnadass A., Aubertot J.-N (Eds.). 2017.  Download/Link: 

Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process (Article-Non Pesticidal Management: Learning from Experiences)

Abstract: Two decades of experience in Andhra Pradesh on Non Pesticidal Management shows that pest is a symptom of ecological disturbance rather than a cause and can be affectively managed by using local resources and timely action. The emerging new paradigm of sustainable agriculture shows that the new knowledge synthesized from traditional practices supplemented with modern science can bring in ecological and economic benefits to the farmers. The small success from few villages could be scaled up into more than 1.5 million ha in three years. The costs of cultivations could be brought down significantly without reduction in yield.

Author/s & Publications: G.V. Ramanjaneyulu,M.S. Chari, T.A.V.S. Raghunath, Zakir Hussain and Kavitha Kuruganti (2009). Download/Link: 

Pest and Disease management in Organic Ecosystem

Abstract: AICRP on Cropping Systems, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.

Author/s : Dr S Mohan, Dr. P Devasenapathy, Dr. C Vennilla Dr. MS Gill, . Download/Link: 

IPM packages

Abstract: Its a website where one can download IPM for the crops of their interest. It includes IPM practices for cereals, pulses, commercial crops, fruits, spices, ornamental and tuber crops

Author/s & Publication: Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage, Faridabad, Haryana. Download/Link: 

Hand Book on Stored grain pests and their identification

Abstract: This pocket guide designed to give brief information on biology, identification, life cycle, commodities attacked and damage caused by different stored grain pests associated with different food grains in India. However, it acts as a basic field identification guide for the officers working in FCI, CWC, SWC, Seed certification officers, quality control officers, grain marketing officers and civil supplies corporations etc.

Author/s: Dr. Mandali Rajasri, Dr. J. Alice R.P. Sujeetha, Dr. Chandra Shekhar Gupta, Smt P. Geetha (2019). Download/Link: 


Abstract: Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming systems, providing high quality vegetable protein, animal feed, and firewood. Insect pests feeding on flowers, pods, and seeds are the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeonpea yields. This review summarizes the biology and ecology of the three most important groups of pests: flower- and pod-feeding Lepidoptera, pod-sucking Hemiptera, and seed-feeding Diptera and Hymenoptera.

Author/s & Publication: T. G. Shanower1and J. Romeis, 1991 Download/Link: 


Abstract: Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to these maladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.

Author/s & Publication: M.S.A. Mamun and M. Ahmed (2011). Download/Link: 

Plant Defence against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection

Abstract: Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. 

Author/s & Publication: Mitchell C, Brennan RM, Graham J and Karley AJ (2016). Download/Link: 

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

Abstract: Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control.

Author/s & Publication: Abdul Rashid War, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Tariq Ahmad, Abdul Ahad Buhroo, Barkat Hussain, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, and Hari Chand Sharma (2012). Download/Link: 

Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities

Abstract: Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed.

Author/s & Publication: Julie A. Peterson1, Paul J. Ode, Camila Oliveira-Hofmanand James D. Harwood (2016). Download/Link: 

A total system approach to sustainable pest management

Abstract: In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.

Author/s & Publication: W. J. Lewis J. C. van Lenteren, Sharad C. Phatak, and J. H. Tumlinson (1997). Download/Link: 

Abstract: This article introduces the concept of plant disease and provides an overview of some defense mechanisms common among higher plants. A close examination of plant anatomy is presented, as well as some of the ecological relationships that contribute to plant defense and disease resistance. Special care has been taken to illustrate how products used in everyday life are derived from substances produced by plants during defense responses.

Author/s & Publication: Freeman, B.C. and G.A. Beattie. (2008). Download/Link: 

Abstract: Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signalling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense.

Author/s & Publication: Joel Fürstenberg-Hägg, Mika Zagrobelny and Søren Bak, (2013). Download/Link: 

Abstract: Organic farmers rely primarily on preventive, cultural, and integrated methods of pest and disease management. Additionally, there are a number of materials that can complement and support organic management. This guide was developed to provide a useful and scientifically accurate reference for organic farmers and agricultural professionals who are searching for information on best practices, available materials, and perhaps most importantly, the efficacy of materials that are allowed for use in organic systems. Many products available to organic farmers have not been extensively tested, and current research has not been summarized or made widely available to the practitioner. A major objective of this guide is to review literature for published trials on material efficacy in order to provide reliable information that can be used by farmers to effectively manage pests. An additional goal is to identify what materials have shown promise but require more research.

Author/s & Publication: Brian Caldwell, Cornell University, Eric Sideman (2013). Download/Link: 

Abstract: Agrichemical methods of protecting crops are costly to the farmer, potentially harmful to the environment and, despite widespread use, have not proved 100-percent effective. Problems persist due to pest resistance and the uncanny ability of pests to overcome single-tactic control strategies. The old approach strives for 100 percent control of every pest using one strategy or agrichemical for each pest. The new approach, ecological pest management, aims to manage the whole farm and keep pests at acceptable populations using many complementary strategies.

Author/s & Publication: Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls with Marlene Fritz (2005). Download/Link: 

Abstract: The purpose is to disseminate information on extension systems and practices, research on extension methods, efficient organisation of technology transfer and current concerns in the area of agriculture.

Author/s & Publication: Manage, 2019. Download/Link: 

Abstract: Over the past decade, the world's major agricultural issues have altered under the combined influence of ecological and sociological changes: climate change, biodiversity loss, land scarcity, urbanization, and demographic pressure. These changes are interacting variables that continue to contribute to a major change in the way agriculture is done. With increasing urbanization, the relationship between society and nature is changing, and the ecological and social role of agriculture is evolving and changing at a rapid pace in most societies, both in the North and in the South.

Author/s & Publication: CRIDA. Download/Link: 

Abstract: The ‘Field guide to Non-chemical Pest Management in Eggplant Production’ is an excerpt taken from the website, It provides farmers with practical guidelines and alternatives to eliminate the use and their dependence on synthetic pesticides for the management of eggplant pests. The recommended practices are safer, more affordable, and easy to follow. Most of the farm practices, the farmers can do by themselves and the materials that are needed are found in their backyards or in their kitchens or can be purchased in the local agricultural suppliers.

Author/s & Publication: Pesticide Action Network (PAN), Gernmany, 2010. Download/Link: 

Abstract: Farmers often do not realize that their unsprayed fields are full of beneficial insects (parasitoids and predators) which keep pest numbers under control. However, these natural enemies are much more vulnerable to pesticides than the targeted pests. So when pesticides are used, natural enemies are killed and pests can develop unchecked. It is therefore essential to use non-chemical crop protection methods instead of pesticides. This booklet describes a number of tactics that can be used. It demonstrates how to work with nature to keep pests at tolerable levels. The booklet also draws attention to the Farmer Field Schools that have been set up world-wide. In these field schools, farmers learn to become active, self-reliant practitioners of nonchemical crop protection.

Author/s & Publication: Piet Scheepens, Rik Hoevers, Agromisa Foundation and CTA, Wageningen, 2007. Download/Link: 

Abstract: The ‘Field Guide to Non-chemical Pest Management in Corn Production’ is an excerpt taken from the website, It enables to provide farmers with practical guides and alternatives to eliminate the use and their dependence on synthetic pesticides for the management of corn pests. The recommended practices are safer, more affordable, and easy to follow. Most of the farm practices, the farmers can do by themselves and the materials that are needed are found in their backyards or in their kitchens or can be purchased in the local agricultural suppliers.

Author/s & Publication: PAN Germany, 2008. Download/Link: 

bottom of page