top of page

Biodiversity in Cropping System

Cropping System and Sustainable Agriculture

Abstract: Concept Of Cropping System & Farming System, Scope, Objective,Production Potential Under Monocropping, Double Cropping, Multiple Cropping, Alley Cropping, Sequence Cropping & Intercropping, Mechanism of Yield Advantage in Intercropping.

Author/s & Publications: Dr. K .K .Agrawal. Download/Link:

Investing in Indigenous Knowledge

Abstract: The work on seed conservation was logically extended to bring about synergy between indigenous systems of conservation and the agricultural diversity valued by farmers. It was not enough to simply conserve diversity, however; it was imperative to add value to it. In the process, farmers' knowledge pertaining to agricultural practices has played an important role. Indigenous communities' knowledge in this area has drawn the attention of the international scientific community. Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity have been considered two sides of the same coin. In different parts of the world efforts have been afoot to protect this knowledge through documentation and biodiversity registers.

Author/s: & Publications: Green Foundation. Download/Link:

Sustainable Agricultural Practices

Abstract: A Handbook on “Sustainable Agricultural Practices” encompasses several agricultural practices that are being practiced by the farming community in different parts of the country. Ecological agriculture revolves around three important factors, namely soil, water and the seed. In nature, organic relationships are a pervasive phenomenon and everything is inter-connected. The integral relationship seen between soil, water, flora, soil microbes is obvious. It is the totality of these relationships that becomes the bedrock or organic and sustainable farming. Much of the understanding of this relationships is reflected in this Sustainable Agricultural Practices.

Author/s: Dr. Vanaja Ramprasad, H.S.Srikanthamurthy, Ningappa Kakol, Shivakumar, B.Nagaraju, Ningaraju, Shashidhara, Doddappa, A.R.Vijay, M.Shivanna, N.Obanna, A.C.Pandu, Rama Satish, Sandhya Madhu, Veena Pacchapur, Suma Srinivas (2009), Green foundation.  Download/Link: 

Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies

Abstract: Germplasm is a resource that consists of the genetic materials that can perpetuate a species or a population of an organism. It can be used both to reproduce and, through hybridization and selection, to change or enhance organisms. Conserving genetic resources in the form of crop, livestock, microbial, and tree germplasm is a means of safeguarding the living materials now exploited by agriculture, industry, and forestry to provide food for humans and feed for livestock, fiber for clothing and furnishing, fuel for cooking and heating, and the food and industry products of microbial origin.

Author/s & Publications: NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, Washington, D.C. 1993. Download/Link: 

Agroforestry for Crop Diversification and Carbon Sequestration

Abstract: Agroforestry is an important land use system for diversification around the world that has solution to many of such challenges. Almost half of all farmed land in the world has more than 10% tree cover and in some areas (Southeast Asia and Central America) it exceeds 30%. Tree plantations and agroforestry on farms have already started showing positive results. Tree cover is expected to grow further on farmland in temperate countries with their efforts to reduce carbon emissions and demand for biofuel production from lignocellulosic wood sources.

Land Capability classification

Abstract: Since soil surveys ore based on all of the characteristics of soils that influence their use and management, interpretations are needed for each of the many uses. Among these interpretations the grouping of soils into capability units, subclasses, and classes is one of the most important. This grouping serves as an introduction of the soil mop to farmers and other land users developing conservation plans.

Author/s & Publication: Agriculture hand book. Download/Link: 

Crop diversifification and risk management in Indian agriculture

Abstract: The narrow dependence on paddy and wheat cultivation along with incentives such as free electricity and water has resulted in overuse of pumps and significant depletion of ground water resources in Punjab. Stagnating yields and soil degradation due to intensive cropping pose a significant threat to long-term agricultural productivity in the state. In this paper, we focus on the farmers’ decision-making process and identify policy changes that are required to incentivize farmers to cultivate a diverse portfolio of crops and reduce dependence on paddy and wheat. Using data from four representative districts of Punjab, we quantify the impact of introducing alternate crops on the farmers’ profitability. Our analysis shows that incorporating horticultural crops in the mix increases net expected returns from cultivation for all land size classes. We also fifed that including alternate crops reduces water usage by up to 30 % for most farmers, while increasing the labor and working capital requirements.

Author/s: Ashwini Chhatre, Sripad Devalkar, Sridhar Seshadri (2016). Download/Link: 

Crop diversification: an important way-out for doubling farmers' income 

Abstract: In the past five decades or so, increasing agricultural production and ensuring food security was the main concern for agricultural development. To the great satisfaction, Indian farmers with the help of agricultural scientists and policy makers could achieve that by bringing 'Green Revolution' and 'Rainbow Revolution'. This not only brought smiles to the face of millions of Indians, but also established India as the self-sufficient country in agriculture and face-lifting of Indian agriculture in world map was made possible.These strategies involved an increase in productivity through intervention of better crop production technologies and varieties, among few others. It showed 45% increase in per person food production, which has made India not only food self sufficient at aggregate level, but also a net food exporting country. Most importantly, during the last half century, India's food production multiplied 3.7-fold. However, the strategies could not recognize the need to raise the farmers' income and there was no direct relation to promote farmers' welfare.

Author/s: Rubina Khanam, Debarati Bhaduri and A. K. Nayak (2018). Download/Link: 

Zero budget natural farming (ZBNF): A critical analysis on crop wise practices, ZBNF models and cropping systems

Abstract: This study was conducted in Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. In Vizianagaram district, the major crops grown under ZBNF were Paddy, Maize, Cotton, Green gram, Black gram, Brinjal, Bendi, Mango and other crops were grown under small proportions. Most of the ZBNF practices were applicable to more than one crop with multiple uses of kashayams and asthras for prevention and control of several pests and diseases in various crops. More than three fifth of the ZBNF farmers (65%) have adopted kitchen garden model in their back yard. Majority (85%) of the ZBNF farmers followed paddy, maize and pulse cropping pattern followed by paddy, maize and vegetables cropping system as expressed by 75% farmers.

Author/s & Publication: N Harini, Dr. C Padma Veni, Dr. A Sailaja and Dr. A Madhavi Lata (2021). Download/Link: 

Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture

Abstract: This Special Issue on Diversified Farming Systems is motivated by a desire to understand how agriculture designed according to whole systems, agroecological principles can contribute to creating a more sustainable, socially just, and secure global food system. We first define Diversified Farming Systems (DFS) as farming practices and landscapes that intentionally include functional biodiversity at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales in order to maintain ecosystem services that provide critical inputs to agriculture, such as soil fertility, pest and disease control, water use efficiency, and pollination. We explore to what extent DFS overlap or are differentiated from existing concepts such as sustainable, multifunctional, organic or ecoagriculture. DFS are components of social-ecological systems that depend on certain combinations of traditional and contemporary knowledge, cultures, practices, and governance structures. Further, as ecosystem services are generated and regenerated within a DFS, the resulting social benefits in turn support the maintenance of the DFS, enhancing its ability to provision these services sustainably.

Author/s & Publication: Claire Kremen , Alastair Iles and Christopher Bacon (2012). Download/Link: 


Abstract: As in other parts of the world, India's agricultural genetic heritage is under seige. The push to “modernise” and “industrialise” India's rural landscape has already taken a heavy toll on plant and animal diversity. In fact, the worse might be yet to come. Yet community organisations, independent farmers and NGOs are struggling at the local level to document, conserve and revive biodiversity in innovative farming systems throughout the vast country.

Author/s & Publication: Ashish Kothari, 1994. Download/Link: 


Abstract: Crop diversity remains the fundamental characteristic of such cropping systems & the arrangement of crops is such that it keeps the soil covered for most part of the year, a minimum of two or more standing crops always remain in the field. However, scientific studies on the different facets of Navadhanya remain meagre. A study was conducted at four villages of Ayyavaripalli of Chittoor district and Diguvapalli, Gunduvaripalli, and Paravarnapalli of Ananthapuram district of AP to analyse the economics of Navadhanya cropping system cultivated under rainfed conditions. It was found that per acre net returns from the composite yield of different crops of Navadhanya is relatively higher than the net returns of mono-cropping of peanuts in the study area. Further, it was assumed that farmers with small-size landholdings could benefit from the composite yield of different crops cultivated under such a mixed cropping system.

Author/s & Publication: Kanna K. Siripurapu, Bhagya Laxmi, Uday Nagubandi, Venkateswara Rao Thota, Uthappa Gollapalli, and Sudhakar U. (2021). Download/Link: 

Diversified Farming in a Monoculture Landscape: Effects on Honey Bee Health and Wild Bee Communities

Abstract: Honey bees kept at diversified farms had increased colony weight and preoverwintering nutritional state. Regardless of colony location, precipitous declines in colony weight occurred during autumn and thus colonies were not completely buffered from the stressors of living in a matrix dominated with monocultures. Contrary to our hypothesis, wild bee diversity was greater in soybean, specifically in August, a time when fields are in bloom. These differences were largely driven by four common bee species that performed well in soybean. Overall, these results suggest fruit and vegetable farms provide some benefits for honey bees; however, they do not benefit wild bee communities. Thus, incorporation of natural habitat, rather than diversified farming, in these landscapes, may be a better choice for wild bee conservation efforts.

Author/s & Publication: Ashley L. St. Clair, Ge Zhang, Adam G. Dolezal, Matthew E. O’Neal, and Amy L. Toth (2020). Download/Link: 

On-Farm Diversification in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape Positively Influences Specialist Pollinators

Abstract: Agricultural practices can either contribute to pollinator decline or provide opportunities to support pollinator communities. At the landscape-scale, agriculture can have negative impacts on pollinators, especially pollinators that specialize on limited floral or nesting resources. While increasing floral resources at the field-scale is positive for pollinator communities, little is known about how it affects specialist bees that depend on a specific pollen source (oligoleges). We studied pollinators on small-scale farms that contrasted in crop diversity (monocultures vs. polycultures), embedded in the intensively managed agriculture region of the San Joaquin Valley in California, to understand how wild bee communities and specialist bees would respond to field-scale diversification practices.

Author/s & Publication: Aidee Guzman, Marissa Chase and Claire Kremen (2019). Download/Link: 

Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources through Spirituality

Abstract: Conservation of nature and natural resources has been a much challenging task in the present state of affairs where economy prevails over ecology. International treaties and conventions are signed and policies, laws and Acts have been enacted by the countries across the world, however, hostilities remain while applying the protected area policies which largely deprive indigenous communities from their traditional rights. It hurts their feelings and hence changes their behaviour, which impacts the objective, negatively. Historically, religion being a product of feelings and beliefs has been used as a powerful tool for nature conservation. Making age-old religious entities such as sacred landscapes, sacred groves and sacred species by various cultural groups are the live manifestations of historical, cultural and emotional attachment of human beings with nature and natural resources.

Author/s & Publication: Chandra Prakash Kala, 2017. Download/Link: 

Traditional agricultural practices in India: an approach for environmental sustainability and food security

Abstract: Traditional agricultural practices have been an integral part of food production in India since ages. These practices have the potential to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change with spatial and sequential diversity. This review covers three aspects of traditional farming of India: cultivation, biological method of pest management and locally available sustainable practices of crop protection. Double cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotation, agroforestry, use of local varieties and resources with host–pathogen interaction are some of the prominent traditional agricultural practices in India which have to be strengthened in view of the environment and food security.

Author/s & Publication: Sanoj Kumar Patel, Anil Sharma and Gopal Shankar Singh,2020,. Download/Link: 

Biodiversity enhances the multitrophic control of arthropod herbivory

Abstract: Arthropod herbivores cause substantial economic costs that drive an increasing need to develop environmentally sustainable approaches to herbivore control. Increasing plant diversity is expected to limit herbivory by altering plant-herbivore and predator-herbivore interactions, but the simultaneous influence of these interactions on herbivore impacts remains unexplored. We compiled 487 arthropod food webs in two long-running grassland biodiversity experiments in Europe and North America to investigate whether and how increasing plant diversity can reduce the impacts of herbivores on plants.

Baranaja (Twelve grains) cropping system

Abstract: Baranaja (actually meaning twelve grains) is a conventionally blended cultivating framework widespread over the Gharwali rural locals in Uttarkhand. In Baranaja cropping pattern, there is intercropping of twelve or more crops. Grains, lentils, creepers and root vegetables are developed in this alley cropping pattern. All the seeds are sown together on the same field in the monsoon season

Author/s & Publication: Eco secrets, 2017. Download/Link: 

Mainstreaming Barahnaja cultivation for food and nutritional security in the Himalayan region

Abstract: Barahnaja is a traditional orphan crops based mixed cropping system practiced in Himalayan region due to its sustainability and assured crop harvest during erratic weather conditions. This traditional farming method is an exemplary scientific approach to derive innovations with respect to productivity, quality, plant soil interactions and organic agriculture. The main focus of the review is to substantiate the characteristics of the traditional mixed cropping system by describing the advantages of the system and opportunities for scientific innovation towards new knowledge and sustainability.

Author/s & Publication: Kavita Gururani, · Salej Sood, Anil Kumar, · Dinesh C. Joshi, Dinesh Pandey, A. R. Sharma (2021). Download/Link: 

bottom of page