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Packaging and Labelling


Food Packaging - Principles and Practice

Abstract: In today’s society, packaging is pervasive and essential. It surrounds, enhances and protects the goods we buy, from processing and manufacturing, through handling and storage, to the final consumer. Without packaging, materials handling would be a messy, inefficient and costly exercise and modern consumer marketing would be virtually impossible. The packaging sector represents about 2% of the gross national product (GNP) in developed countries, and about half of all packaging is used to package food. The historical development of packaging has been well documented elsewhere and will not be described in depth here. However, an appreciation of the origins of packaging materials and knowledge of the early efforts in package development can be both instructive and inspirational and for this reason they are discussed briefly in the appropriate chapters. Suffice it to say that the highly sophisticated packaging industries that characterize modern society today are far removed from the simple packaging activities of earlier times.

Author/s: Gordon Robertson, CRC Press.  Year Of Publication: 2012. Download/Link: 

A Review on Active Packaging: An Innovation in Food Packaging

Abstract: Innovative packaging such as active packaging is the result of consumers demand for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Depending on the requirements of packed food, the application of appropriate active packaging systems can significantly reduce food quality deterioration. Different active packaging systems are Oxygen scavengers, Carbon dioxide emitters and scavenger, Ethylene scavengers, Ethanol emitters, Moisture absorbers, Antimicrobial agents, Flavour/odour absorbers, Temperature-controlled packaging.

Author/s: K A Mane, International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. Year Of Publication: NA. Download/Link: 

Active and Intelligent Packaging Food – Research and Development – A Review

Abstract: Innovation in food and beverage packaging is mostly driven by consumer needs and demands influenced by changing global trends, such as increased life expectancy, and fewer organizations investing in food production and distribution. Food industry has seen great advances in the packaging sector since its inception in the 18th century with most active and intelligent innovations occurring during the past century. These advances have led to improved food quality and safety. Active and intelligent packaging is a new and exciting area of technology which efficient contemporary consumer response. The aim of this review article was to present active and intelligent packaging currently existing on the market.

Author/s: Joanna Molga, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research.  Year Of Publication: NA. Download/Link: 

Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Foods

Abstract: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is an indirect food preservation technique that was initially designed to preserve the quality of fresh produce. As the name implies, the gas composition in a package is modified such that microbial growth and chemical deterioration reactions are to be kept at minimum levels. It is noteworthy to mention that in modified atmosphere packages the atmosphere is not controlled but just modified.

Author/s: Emrah Kirtil, Mete Kilercioglu, and Mecit Halil Oztop, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, TurkeyPublication: NA. Download/Link: 

Active, Intelligent and Modified Packaging

Abstract: Active packaging, sometimes referred to as interactive or “smart” packaging, is intended to sense internal or external environmental change and to respond by changing its own properties or attributes and hence the internal package environment. The goal of active packaging, in conjunction with other food processing and packaging, is to enhance preservation of contained food and beverage products. This review paper discusses active, intelligent and modified atmosphere packaging as a model technology for the food industry and  further  reviewing the current status of the technology.

Author/s: P.Muredzi, School of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Harare Institute of Technology. Publication: NA. Download/Link: 

Ethylene Scavengers in Food Packaging Technology: A Review

Abstract: Ethylene, being a plant hormone greatly effects the ripening, softening, color change and sensory properties of fruits and vegetable commodities. Use of ethylene scavengers as active packaging has been researched now from many years. Ethylene scavengers available in market mostly contain KmNO4 as main functioning group embedded on various adsorbing materials. Ethylene scavengers are mainly classified on their mechanism of action: (1) catalysts, (2) ethylene reducing materials & (3) adsorbents. Further KmNO4 being toxic materials is embedded on adsorbents. In past several years, some innovative ethylene scavenging materials have been researched. They include halloysite-nanotubes, natural clay particles, TiO2, etc. Effects of ethylene scavengers include delaying of ripening, decrease in loss of chlorophyll content, delaying the pathogen and mold growth and also reduction in softening. Although, effects of ethylene scavengers depend on the type of ethylene scavengers used and the commodity of fruit and vegetables.

Author/s: Mehul H. Chudasama, College of Food Processing Technology and Bio-Energy, AAU, Anand. Publication: NA. Download/Link: 

Minimal Processing and Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables by Active Packaging

Abstract: Packaging should protect the product from contamination and prevent it from spoilage. Packaging has normally been expected to be inert towards the packaged product, but the potential for packaging to put in to the quality retention and the convenience of packaged goods was not utilized. In response to the dynamic changes in current market trends and consumer demand, the area of Active Packaging (AP) is becoming increasingly significant. Active packaging changes the condition of the packed foods with the use of the incorporation of certain additives into the packaging films or inside the packaging headspaces so as to extend the product's shelf life. Principal AP systems include those that involve moisture absorption and control, oxygen scavenging, carbon dioxide and ethanol generation, and antimicrobial (AM) migrating and non-migrating systems.

Author/s: Shanky Bhat, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar.  Publication: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Download/Link: 

Innovations in Packaging for Enhancing Shelf Life of Horticultural Produce

Abstract: Packaging is one the essential elements required for protection and to extend the shelf life of food products. However, it is required not only for food preservation and protection but also for safe transportation of products during storage and handling. Increasing exports and developing export market needs have also affects the packaging trend. Packaging requires to contain foods, protect foods from the environmental factors, for convenience in handling, storage and marketing and to communicate information to consumers about the food inside the package. Therefore, it has an active role in retaining the safety and quality of foods throughout the supply chain. The use of properly designed containers for transporting and marketing of horticultural produce can significantly reduce their losses and maintain their freshness and quality for longer period.

Author/s: . Publication: Abhimanyu Thakur, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Solan, HP, India .Download/Link: 

Food Processing and Packaging Technology

Abstract: The book provides the basic and prime information on the various dimensions of food processing. Proper food processing followed by its suitable packaging provides the consumer safe commodities for consumption. It also raises the public health issues involved in food processing and packaging. The hand book is dedicated to Students, researchers and professionals in the field of food processing technology.

Author/s and Publication: Subha Ganguly. Download/Link: 

Recent Developments in Food Packging Technologies

Abstract: Good packaging plays an important role in supplying hygienic and safe food to the consumers by protecting it from physical, chemical, and microbial damage. Packaging is a crucial link between manufacturers and consumers, unless performed correctly, the products lose quality, and customers also lose confidence. The food packaging industry gets highly competitive due to consumer’s desire for tasty and slightly processed food products with longer shelf life at a lower cost than their existing packaging. Recent trend in the change of lifestyle leads food industry well aware about consumer’s needs, and therefore, the packaging industry must innovate or stagnate. This condition has posed a great challenge for the food packaging sector to innovate new food packaging techniques. Consumers will often actively seek freshness of the product with the longest remaining shelf life. Nowadays, novel food packaging technologies, such as active packaging, aseptic packaging, intelligent packaging, nano-packaging, and bioactive packaging intentionally associated with the food products have proved to be best technological research areas. Advances in the packaging technology may prevent food spoilage by retarding water penetration, ultra violet interactions, oxygenation, and ripeness. By doing so, it helps in fulfilling the needs of consumers throughout the food supply chain by gearing up toward person’s own lifestyle. The consumers are advised to meticulously check that the food purchased from the market is well packaged. It is emphasized that food should be protected at all levels by using good quality of packaging material, which is hygienic, safe, and cost effective.

Author/s and Publication: Mahendra Pal, Mridula Devrani - Veterinary Public Health, Anand , India Angesom Hadush - Aksum University College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Shire, Ethiopia. Download/Link: 

Intelligent food packaging: Concepts and innovations

Abstract: Intelligent packaging systems are constantly changing to meet the growing challenges of the modern society. This article discusses the following issues: different currently available categories of intelligent packaging concepts, latest packaging research trends and innovations, and the growth perspectives of the intelligent packaging market. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are in progress towards becoming more cost-effective, convenient and integrated in order to deliver innovative packaging solutions. Further more, the intelligent packaging market is promising with strong achievements for time–temperature indicator labels and progresses in intelligent concepts integration into packaging materials.

Author/s and Publication: Department of Food Science and Technology, Quchan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan, Iran. Download/Link: 

Guidelines For The Production, Processing, Labelling And Marketing Of Organic Foods

Abstract: Foods should only refer to organic production methods if they come from an organic farm system employing management practices which seek to nurture ecosystems which achieve sustainable productivity, and provide weed, pest and disease control through a diverse mix of mutually dependent life forms, recycling plant and animal residues, crop selection and rotation, water management, tillage and cultivation. Soil fertility is maintained and enhanced by a system which optimises soil biological activity and the physical and mineral nature of the soil as the means to provide a balanced nutrient supply for plant and animal life as well as to conserve soil resources. Production should be sustainable with the recycling of plant nutrients as an essential part of the fertilizing strategy. Pest and disease management is attained by means of the encouragement of a balanced host/predator relationship, augmentation of beneficial insect populations, biological and cultural control and mechanical removal of pests and affected plant parts. The basis for organic livestock husbandry is the development of a harmonious relationship between land, plants and livestock, and respect for the physiological and behavioural needs of livestock. This is achieved by a combination of providing good quality organically grown feedstuffs, appropriate stocking rates, livestock husbandry systems appropriate to behavioural needs, and animal management practices that minimize stress and seek to promote animal health and welfare, prevent disease and avoid the use of chemical allopathic veterinary drugs (including antibiotics).

Author/s and Publication: FAO, United Nations. Download/Link: 

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